Canada’s advanced economy is one of the largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed trade networks. Its long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
This developed country is one of the wealthiest in the world, with the 8th-highest per capita income globally, and the 11th-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of education, government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, and economic freedom. Canada is a recognized middle power and a member of G7, G8, G20, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, NATO, North American Free Trade Agreement, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Commonwealth of Nations, Francophonie, Organization of American States, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the United Nations.
Located in the northern part of the North American continent, Canada consists of 10 provinces and 3 territories extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It ranks as the world’s second-largest country by total area, and its common border with the United States is the world’s longest land border shared by the same two countries.
Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries, with a population of approximately 35 million as of December 2012.